A hotspot refers to a physical location where people can access the internet, typically using Wi-Fi, via a wireless local area network (WLAN) with a router.

Back to glossary

A hotspot refers to a physical location where people can access the internet, typically using Wi-Fi, via a wireless local area network (WLAN) with a router connected to an internet service provider. They are often found in coffee shops, libraries, airports, and other public places. However, while they provide convenience, they also present a variety of cybersecurity risks.

Understanding hotspots, their functionality, and the potential security threats they pose is crucial for anyone who frequently uses public Wi-Fi. This article aims to delve deep into the concept of hotspots, providing a comprehensive understanding of this critical topic in cybersecurity.

Understanding hotspots

Hotspots are essentially access points providing internet connectivity to devices within their range via Wi-Fi. They act as a bridge between the device and the internet, allowing the device to connect to the internet wirelessly. The hotspot device itself is connected to the internet via a wired connection, typically to an internet service provider.

Hotspots are prevalent in public places, providing internet access to people on the go. They are a convenient way to stay connected when away from home or office networks. However, the public nature of these hotspots also makes them a prime target for cybercriminals.

Types of hotspots

There are primarily two types of hotspots: public and private. Public hotspots are those found in public places like cafes, airports, and libraries. They are open to anyone within range and usually do not require a password for access. Private hotspots, on the other hand, are typically found in homes or businesses and are secured with a password, restricting access to authorized users only.

While both types of hotspots serve the same purpose of providing internet connectivity, they differ significantly in terms of security. Public hotspots are inherently less secure due to their open nature, making them a hotbed for cybercriminal activities.

How hotspots work

Hotspots work by converting internet data into radio waves. The hotspot device, equipped with a wireless adapter, receives the data from the internet service provider via a wired connection. It then converts this data into radio waves and broadcasts it within a certain range. Any device within this range, equipped with a wireless adapter, can then pick up these radio waves and convert them back into internet data, thus establishing a connection to the internet.

The range of a hotspot can vary depending on the specific device and its settings. Some hotspots may only cover a small area, such as a single room, while others can cover a larger area, such as an entire building or outdoor space.

Security risks associated with hotspots

While hotspots provide the convenience of internet connectivity on the go, they also come with a host of security risks. The open nature of public hotspots makes them particularly vulnerable to cyber threats. Some of the most common security risks associated with hotspots include man-in-the-middle attacks, malware distribution, and snooping.

Man-in-the-middle attacks occur when a cybercriminal intercepts the communication between a user's device and the hotspot. The attacker can then steal sensitive information, such as login credentials or credit card information. Malware distribution involves the attacker using the hotspot to distribute harmful software to connected devices. Snooping involves the attacker simply observing the user's online activities, potentially gaining access to sensitive information.

Preventing hotspot threats

Despite the security risks associated with hotspots, there are several measures users can take to protect themselves. These include using a virtual private network (VPN), keeping software and applications updated, and avoiding sensitive activities, such as online banking, while connected to a public hotspot.

A VPN creates a secure, encrypted tunnel between the user's device and the internet, protecting the data transmitted from potential interception. Keeping software and applications updated ensures that the latest security patches are in place, reducing the risk of malware infection. Avoiding sensitive activities while connected to a public hotspot reduces the risk of sensitive information falling into the wrong hands.

Hotspot best practices

When using a hotspot, there are several best practices to follow to ensure a safe and secure connection. These include verifying the hotspot before connecting, disabling automatic connections to open Wi-Fi networks, and always logging out of accounts when finished.

Verifying the hotspot before connecting can help avoid connecting to a rogue hotspot set up by a cybercriminal. Disabling automatic connections to open Wi-Fi networks prevents the device from unknowingly connecting to a potentially unsafe network. Logging out of accounts when finished ensures that even if an attacker gains access to the device, they cannot access any logged-in accounts.

Setting up a secure hotspot

Setting up a secure hotspot involves several steps, including choosing a strong password, enabling encryption, and regularly updating the hotspot device's firmware. A strong password makes it harder for unauthorized users to gain access to the hotspot. Encryption scrambles the data transmitted over the network, making it harder for attackers to intercept and read.

Regularly updating the hotspot device's firmware ensures that any known security vulnerabilities are patched, reducing the risk of an attack. It's also a good practice to change the default login credentials for the hotspot device, as these are often easy for attackers to guess.

Enabling encryption

Enabling encryption is another crucial step in setting up a secure hotspot. Encryption scrambles the data transmitted over the network, making it unreadable to anyone who might intercept it. There are several types of encryption available for hotspots, with WPA2 and WPA3 being the most secure.

When setting up a hotspot, the user should choose the strongest encryption option available. If the hotspot device doesn't support WPA2 or WPA3, it may be worth considering an upgrade to a device that does.


Hotspots are a convenient way to stay connected on the go, but they also come with a host of security risks. Understanding these risks and how to mitigate them is crucial for anyone who frequently uses public Wi-Fi. By following best practices and taking proactive measures, users can enjoy the convenience of hotspots while minimizing their exposure to potential threats.

Remember, cybersecurity is not a one-time effort, but a continuous process. Stay informed, stay vigilant, and stay safe.

This post has been updated on 17-11-2023 by Sofie Meyer.

Author Sofie Meyer

About the author

Sofie Meyer is a copywriter and phishing aficionado here at Moxso. She has a master´s degree in Danish and a great interest in cybercrime, which resulted in a master thesis project on phishing.

Similar definitions

Asynchronous Redundancy Semantics Catfishing One-time password (OTP) Information and communication technology (ICT) Value-added service (VAS) QuillBot Advanced systems format (ASF) Provisioning Passkey Proprietary software Spooling Microsoft Access TL;DR