Non-volatile memory (NVM)

Non-volatile memory is a type of computer memory that retains its information even when the system is powered off.

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Non-volatile memory is a type of computer memory that retains its information even when the system is powered off. This type of memory is essential for storing long-term data that must be preserved even in the event of a power outage or system shutdown. It is a fundamental part of any computing system, from personal computers to large-scale servers and data centers.

Understanding non-volatile memory is crucial for anyone involved in cybersecurity, as it plays a significant role in data protection and recovery. This article will delve into the intricacies of non-volatile memory, its types, how it works, and its relevance to cybersecurity.

What is non-volatile memory?

Non-volatile memory (NVM) is a type of computer memory that can retain the stored information even when not powered. This is in contrast to volatile memory, such as Random Access Memory (RAM), which requires power to maintain the stored information. Non-volatile memory is typically used for the task of secondary storage or long-term persistent storage.

The most common form of non-volatile memory is the flash memory in your computer's solid-state drive (SSD). Other examples include read-only memory (ROM), electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM), and ferroelectric RAM (FRAM).

How Does non-volatile memory Work?

Non-volatile memory works by storing data in a non-volatile state, which means it doesn't require power to maintain the information. This is achieved through various technologies, depending on the type of non-volatile memory. For example, flash memory uses electric charge to store data, while magnetic hard drives use magnetic fields.

The data stored in non-volatile memory can be accessed and read at any time, regardless of whether the system is powered on or off. This makes it ideal for storing important data that needs to be preserved over time.

Types of non-volatile memory

There are several types of non-volatile memory, each with its own characteristics and uses. These include:

  • Flash Memory: This is the most common type of non-volatile memory. It's used in many devices, including computers, smartphones, and digital cameras.
  • Read-Only Memory (ROM): This type of non-volatile memory is used to store firmware or software that boots up the computer system.
  • Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM): This is a type of ROM that can be erased and reprogrammed using an electrical charge.
  • Ferroelectric RAM (FRAM): This is a random-access memory that retains data even when the power supply is turned off.

Each type of non-volatile memory has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice between them depends on the specific needs of the system or device.

Non-volatile memory and cybersecurity

Non-volatile memory plays a crucial role in cybersecurity. It is where sensitive data, such as encryption keys and authentication information, is often stored. Therefore, the security of non-volatile memory is a major concern in cybersecurity.

Furthermore, non-volatile memory is often the target of various cyber attacks. For example, an attacker may attempt to extract sensitive data from the memory, or manipulate the data stored in the memory to compromise the system.

Protecting non-volatile memory

There are several strategies for protecting non-volatile memory. One common approach is to encrypt the data stored in the memory. This ensures that even if an attacker manages to access the memory, they won't be able to understand the data without the encryption key.

Another approach is to use secure erase functions that completely remove data from the memory when it's no longer needed. This prevents any residual data from being recovered by an attacker.

Non-volatile memory and data recovery

In the event of a cyber attack or system failure, non-volatile memory can be crucial for data recovery. Since non-volatile memory retains data even when the power is off, it can be used to recover data that was in use at the time of the incident.

However, data recovery from non-volatile memory can be a complex process, and often requires specialized tools and expertise. Therefore, it's important to have a data recovery plan in place that includes non-volatile memory.

Future of non-volatile memory

The future of non-volatile memory is promising, with new technologies and advancements on the horizon. For example, researchers are exploring the use of new materials and structures to create non-volatile memory that is faster, more reliable, and more energy-efficient.

Furthermore, as the importance of data security continues to grow, we can expect to see more focus on the security features of non-volatile memory. This includes advanced encryption techniques, secure erase functions, and other security measures to protect against cyber attacks.

New Technologies in non-volatile memory

One of the most promising new technologies in non-volatile memory is 3D XPoint, a technology developed by Intel and Micron. 3D XPoint is a type of non-volatile memory that is up to 1000 times faster than traditional NAND flash memory, and has up to 10 times the endurance.

Another emerging technology is Resistive Random Access Memory (ReRAM), which uses a form of resistive switching to store data. ReRAM has the potential to be faster and more energy-efficient than current non-volatile memory technologies.

Non-volatile memory in the internet of things (IoT)

Non-volatile memory is also playing a crucial role in the Internet of Things (IoT). IoT devices, such as smart home devices and wearable technology, often require non-volatile memory to store data and maintain functionality when not connected to power.

As the IoT continues to grow, we can expect to see an increasing demand for non-volatile memory that is small, energy-efficient, and secure.


Non-volatile memory is a crucial component of any computing system, and its importance in cybersecurity cannot be overstated. By understanding how non-volatile memory works and how it can be protected, we can better safeguard our systems and data against cyber threats.

As technology continues to advance, we can look forward to new and improved forms of non-volatile memory that offer greater speed, reliability, and security. These advancements will not only enhance the performance of our devices but also strengthen our defenses against cyber attacks.

Author Sofie Meyer

About the author

Sofie Meyer is a copywriter and phishing aficionado here at Moxso. She has a master´s degree in Danish and a great interest in cybercrime, which resulted in a master thesis project on phishing.

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