Virtual private network (VPN)

Protect your online privacy and access restricted content with a VPN, which masks your IP address.

Back to glossary

A Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a critical tool in the world of cybersecurity, offering a secure connection over public networks. This technology is essential for maintaining privacy and security online, especially when using unsecured networks. In this glossary article, we will delve into the intricate details of VPNs, from their basic definition to their various uses and benefits.

VPNs are used by individuals and businesses alike to protect sensitive data and maintain anonymity online. They are a key component in the fight against cybercrime, providing a secure tunnel for data transmission. This article will provide a comprehensive understanding of VPNs, their operation, and their importance in the digital age.

What is a VPN?

A Virtual Private Network, or VPN, is a service that allows you to connect to the internet via a server run by a VPN provider. All data traveling between your computer, smartphone, or tablet and this ""VPN server"" is securely encrypted. This setup means that your internet connection will appear as if it's originating from the VPN server and not your device, providing anonymity and security.

VPNs are used to shield your browsing activity from prying eyes on public Wi-Fi, and more. They can also be used to access region-restricted websites by masking your IP address, making it appear as if you're browsing from a different location. VPNs are a powerful tool for preserving your online privacy and security.

How does a VPN work?

A VPN works by creating a secure, encrypted connection—known as a VPN tunnel—between your device and the VPN server. When you send data over the internet, it is split into packets. These packets are then encrypted by the VPN software on your device and sent to the VPN server.

The VPN server decrypts these packets and sends them onto their final destination on the internet. The server then receives the response from your destination, encrypts it, and sends it back to your device. This process ensures that your data remains secure and private, even on public, unsecured networks.

Types of VPNs

There are several types of VPNs, each with its own set of features and uses. The most common types are remote access VPNs and site-to-site VPNs. Remote access VPNs are used by individuals to secure their online activity, while site-to-site VPNs are used by businesses to connect the networks of multiple offices or locations.

Other types of VPNs include mobile VPNs, which are designed for use on mobile devices, and hardware VPNs, which are physical devices that provide VPN functionality. Each type of VPN offers different levels of security, privacy, and other features, so it's important to choose the right one for your needs.

Remote Access VPN

A remote access VPN allows a user to connect to a private network and access its services and resources remotely. The connection between the user and the private network happens over the internet, just like a point-to-point link. The data sent between the user and the network is encrypted, providing a secure connection.

This type of VPN is beneficial for individuals who need to access their network resources while they're away from the office, or for employees who are working remotely. Remote access VPNs are also commonly used by individual users to secure their internet activity and maintain privacy.

Site-to-Site VPN

A site-to-site VPN, also known as a router-to-router VPN, is used when one network wants to connect to another network through the internet. This type of VPN is mainly used in corporate settings where networks across multiple locations need to be interconnected.

Site-to-site VPNs can be further categorized into intranet-based and extranet-based VPNs. An intranet-based VPN is used when a company has multiple remote locations that they need to join into a single private network. An extranet-based VPN, on the other hand, is used when a company wants to connect with its partners or customers, allowing them to access parts of the company's intranet.

Benefits of Using a VPN

There are numerous benefits to using a VPN, from enhancing your online privacy and security to providing access to region-restricted content. VPNs are a valuable tool for anyone who uses the internet, whether for personal use or business.

One of the main benefits of a VPN is the increased privacy it provides. By masking your IP address and encrypting your internet connection, a VPN helps to keep your online activity private from your ISP, advertisers, and anyone else who might be trying to monitor your browsing habits.

Enhanced Security

VPNs provide an extra layer of security by encrypting your data. This means that even if a hacker were to intercept your data, they would not be able to read it. This is particularly important when using public Wi-Fi networks, which are often unsecured and can be a hotbed for cybercriminal activity.

By using a VPN, you can ensure that your personal information, such as your passwords and banking details, are safe from prying eyes. This is especially important for those who frequently use public Wi-Fi networks, such as those at coffee shops or airports.

Access to Geo-Restricted Content

Another major benefit of using a VPN is the ability to bypass geo-restrictions. Many websites and services, such as streaming platforms like Netflix and Hulu, restrict access to their content based on the user's location. By using a VPN, you can mask your IP address and appear to be browsing from a different location, allowing you to access this restricted content.

This feature is particularly useful for those who travel frequently and want to maintain access to their favorite shows and movies, or for those who live in regions where certain content is restricted.

Choosing a VPN

When choosing a VPN, there are several factors to consider. These include the level of security provided, the number of servers available, the locations of those servers, and the cost. It's also important to consider the VPN's privacy policy and whether it keeps logs of your activity.

Other factors to consider include the VPN's speed, the number of devices you can connect, and whether it can bypass geo-restrictions. It's important to do your research and choose a VPN that meets your specific needs.

Security Features

One of the most important factors to consider when choosing a VPN is the level of security it provides. Look for a VPN that uses strong encryption, such as 256-bit AES, which is considered virtually unbreakable. Also, consider whether the VPN offers a kill switch feature, which automatically disconnects your device from the internet if the VPN connection drops, ensuring your data isn't exposed.

Another security feature to look for is DNS leak protection. This prevents your DNS requests from being sent over an unsecured connection, which could expose your browsing activity. A VPN that offers these and other security features will provide the best protection for your online activity.

Privacy Policy

Another critical factor to consider when choosing a VPN is its privacy policy. Some VPNs keep logs of your activity, which could potentially be accessed by third parties. Look for a VPN that has a strict no-logs policy, meaning it doesn't keep any record of your online activity.

It's also worth considering where the VPN company is based, as this can affect its privacy policy. Some countries have strict data retention laws, which could require the VPN company to keep logs of your activity. Choose a VPN based in a country with strong privacy laws for the best protection.


VPNs are an essential tool in the world of cybersecurity, providing a secure and private connection to the internet. They offer numerous benefits, from enhancing your online privacy to providing access to geo-restricted content. Whether you're an individual looking to secure your online activity or a business needing to connect multiple networks, a VPN can provide the solution you need.

When choosing a VPN, it's important to consider the level of security it provides, its privacy policy, and other features that meet your specific needs. With the right VPN, you can browse the internet with confidence, knowing that your data is secure and your online activity is private.

This post has been updated on 17-11-2023 by Sofie Meyer.

Author Sofie Meyer

About the author

Sofie Meyer is a copywriter and phishing aficionado here at Moxso. She has a master´s degree in Danish and a great interest in cybercrime, which resulted in a master thesis project on phishing.

Similar definitions

Query Request for proposal (RFP) Killswitch Range Jailbreak Knowledge management system (KMS) Demilitarized zone (DMZ) Postscript Petabyte Wireless fidelity Not safe for work (NSFW) Name server lookup (nslookup) Quick response code (QR) Semantics Pseudonym